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Author Topic: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?  (Read 11188 times)

Bubba#$%Kron

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What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« on: December 20, 2010, 02:00:06 am »

I put on the 50's channel on sirius and every damn song just sounds so good. In the USA:  Were they using condensers or mostly ribbon?? u47's? which ones??   most importantly, what preamps? what compressors?    All tube reel to reels I assume, were they multi tracked or recorded all in one room mostly?

The sound of the echo chambers are obvious, but was plate common in the usa then?   Was the orchestra in the same room? they always put tons of reverb on the orchestra which sounds so sweet!!


songs like- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9hrwJvdPtwI

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XX1mBpsWoMI

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z0iw89L6aFo



Ive looked online and every damn thing always leads into the beatles and the 60's!!

Thanks,Bryan
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"When we make music we don't do it in order to reach a certain point, such as the end of the composition. If that were the purpose of music then obviously the fastest players would be the best. Also, when we are dancing we are not aiming to arrive at a particular place on the floor as in a journey. When we dance, the journey itself is the point, as when we play music the playing itself is the point."  -Alan Watts

tom eaton

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Re: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« Reply #1 on: December 20, 2010, 02:06:00 am »

Big bands, big rooms, few mics, desks with few inputs.  Printed to two or three tracks at most.  Live takes with superb performers, and the best players playing the best arrangements.  Homework done in advance.  

We've come so far, huh?

t

Bubba#$%Kron

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Re: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« Reply #2 on: December 20, 2010, 02:26:44 am »

Totally!! They just dont make em like they used to!!

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"When we make music we don't do it in order to reach a certain point, such as the end of the composition. If that were the purpose of music then obviously the fastest players would be the best. Also, when we are dancing we are not aiming to arrive at a particular place on the floor as in a journey. When we dance, the journey itself is the point, as when we play music the playing itself is the point."  -Alan Watts

tom eaton

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Re: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« Reply #3 on: December 20, 2010, 02:32:29 am »

The thing that kicks my ass about that time period is this... when folks came back to the control room for playback... they heard THE MIX.  Done, no going back, no tweaking... the mix.  The engineer was performing live, too.

Love it.

t

Dominick

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Re: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« Reply #4 on: December 20, 2010, 07:40:01 am »

This Magic Moment by The Drifters is technically a little out of the norm for the day.
1" 8 track.
Tom Dowd engineering.

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Dominick Costanzo

compasspnt

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Re: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« Reply #5 on: December 20, 2010, 07:59:51 am »

For the most part, only the very best, most talented people were able to be in a recording studio back then, both as performers, or as facilitators.

The very best of what was recorded then is what is now played as an example of the era.

Ricky Nelson was done in LA using the best session musicians, in the best facilities. Pretty sure his final vocals were overdubbed. For one BIG thing, James Burton lived in the Nelson home, and was the guitarist (at 18 yrs old).

Ben E. King (formerly of The Drifters) was recorded in NYC, again using great session musicians in great facilities.

In both cases, virtually no "processing" was done to the sounds, just great mics (Ricky sang on a U47) through a simple desk, to the recorder.

(Couldn't open the third youtube, it is prohibited outside US).


Today, anyone who wants to can record the pile of garbage of their choice.
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PaulyD

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Re: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« Reply #6 on: December 20, 2010, 11:04:38 am »

Imagine being a musician before there was tape.

No rewinding, no redoing your part, no punching in, no overdubbing and no editing. Forget about eq and compression, let alone beat correcting and pitch correcting. If you made a major mistake, the media was wasted. Imagine being in an orchestra with that pressure.

Imagine just being a person before there was TV, stereo, home video, and video games. There was a time when having musical and live entertaining ability was a highly valued social skill. It's why you used to see stores that did nothing but sell, transport and service pianos. Lots of homes had them. That was your entertainment center.

EDIT: Sorry, didn't mean to drift OT. But yeah, more people participating, fewer of them being chosen.

Paul

drknob

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Re: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« Reply #7 on: December 20, 2010, 11:17:13 am »

compasspnt wrote on Mon, 20 December 2010 07:59

For the most part, only the very best, most talented people were able to be in a recording studio back then, both as performers, or as facilitators.

Amen, sir.
In the day, the process was so time and money intensive, there had to be a reasonable expectation of success. Add some technical constrictions into the process, and talent and preparation become essential ingredients.

If I buy QuarkXPress, it doesn't make me a book editor.
But if I buy Pro Tools.....
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Harold Kilianski
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Re: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« Reply #8 on: December 20, 2010, 12:00:52 pm »

Quote:

If I buy QuarkXPress, it doesn't make me a book editor.
But if I buy Pro Tools.....


Quote of the day...


I think most people played a whole lot quieter back then, too, as to hear what the other guys were playing.  Don't believe there were many 100 watt amps, dual kick drum 11 tom kits played with sticks the size of broom handles, etc.  Bleed was a good thing, as most things were mono anyway

Jes saying.  
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Dominick

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Re: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« Reply #9 on: December 20, 2010, 01:39:20 pm »

Headphones during tracking was a very rare thing.
Rooms were designed so the musicians could hear each other.
Leakage was a good thing.
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Dominick Costanzo

rankus

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Re: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« Reply #10 on: December 20, 2010, 09:18:10 pm »



And in the case of single mic recordings the MUSICIANS would strike the balance  Shocked

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jrmintz

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Re: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« Reply #11 on: December 21, 2010, 12:04:04 am »

PaulyD wrote on Mon, 20 December 2010 11:04

Imagine being a musician before there was tape.

No rewinding, no redoing your part, no punching in, no overdubbing and no editing. Forget about eq and compression, let alone beat correcting and pitch correcting. If you made a major mistake, the media was wasted. Imagine being in an orchestra with that pressure.

Imagine just being a person before there was TV, stereo, home video, and video games. There was a time when having musical and live entertaining ability was a highly valued social skill. It's why you used to see stores that did nothing but sell, transport and service pianos. Lots of homes had them. That was your entertainment center.

EDIT: Sorry, didn't mean to drift OT. But yeah, more people participating, fewer of them being chosen.

Paul


The pressure made you strong or crazy. It's almost impossible to acquire those skills now because there are so few places they're required that you can't hone them. There are, however, some people still around who grew up in that era, and many who learned from those people.
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Silvertone

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Re: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« Reply #12 on: December 21, 2010, 06:45:53 am »

Tube, tube , tube... and most of the audio path was... tubes!

Ribbon mics, tube mics, tube console, cut to disc with the best musicians, writers and arrangers. Look at the team alone, except for movie scores do you ever see the producer, writer and arranger watching over the band with top engineers (yes, more than one). In highly tuned rooms with a great staff.

Now talk about a nightmare, have 30 tube mics on the floor multed together down to say 4 or 8 console in's... now one tube goes bad and your the engineer who has to figure out which mic!  Fun.

That said, the sound... the wonderful sound. Some of my favorite records came out of the 50's and early 60's.

This is what I want to try to do with that Langevin tube console of mine.  Up here we still have many musicians that cut records together,  old school guys who have been doing it for 40+ years... I'm trying to get it together before they are gone... to document some of the stuff they do... and to try and capture a bit of the sound from a bygone era.  
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Jim Williams

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Re: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« Reply #13 on: December 21, 2010, 11:31:04 am »

We were pros once.
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Jim Williams
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faganking

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Re: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« Reply #14 on: December 21, 2010, 12:16:44 pm »

Adding to what Terry said above.

Upon hearing an old record and having the same thoughts as Ryan, I picked up the phone and called Al Schmitt.

Benjy: "Al. What's up with these old records? Why do they sound so damn good?"

Al: "A lot of talented people in the same room at the same time."

That's all he said.

That's all it takes.

That's almost all gone.
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Bubba#$%Kron

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Re: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« Reply #15 on: December 21, 2010, 02:38:34 pm »

Not to mention no birth control or prozac for the women!!!  Only god knows the horrors those men have seen!!!    Laughing



But seriously, its so true!! If you really think about it, there was a lot of cumulative skills from all those people which all makes a big difference.   From the pianos tuned by ear, to the hand carved ivory nuts/saddles, and the hand sculpted tortoise shell picks- there was so much more going on there than just the pretty boy upfront(who was amazingly talented in his own right)!!!!!  And most importantly, the vast majority of the people in the room did not have some ridiculous celebrity dream, their heads were actually in the game for the sake of the music and a hot meal!!!


You also have musicians who tuned by ear, probably practiced as much as we listen to music today- and knew/maintained thier own instruments.  All that human energy adds up to something REALLY nice!!!

The BLEED factor is so true too.  You rarely hear a single source picked up on both ribbons and condensers today(except drums). On most of those 50's tracks it seems like every source has to be hitting an RCA and the u47 in front of the singer at some point- it creates a nice haze IMO!!!!

Get that Langevin tube console running Mr. Silvertone- I would love to hear a cut off it!!!

Cheers, Bryan
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"When we make music we don't do it in order to reach a certain point, such as the end of the composition. If that were the purpose of music then obviously the fastest players would be the best. Also, when we are dancing we are not aiming to arrive at a particular place on the floor as in a journey. When we dance, the journey itself is the point, as when we play music the playing itself is the point."  -Alan Watts

jrmintz

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Re: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« Reply #16 on: December 21, 2010, 08:51:13 pm »

It's funny - they're so ubiquitous now it's hard to remember the time before guitar tuners. We used to have to tune to the piano. Which meant that you had to get the drummer not to play long enough so you could hear the piano. There were people who played great but never played completely in tune. Remarkably enough some of them worked all the time. The groove was just more important than perfect tuning.
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Borough Cat

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Re: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« Reply #17 on: December 21, 2010, 10:36:40 pm »

If the band can play i always suggest a live to 1 or 2 track recording. Thankfully once they hear the results there's no going back....ever.
As for tuners, a shared tuning fork usually does the trick.
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Mark Nelson

tom eaton

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Re: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« Reply #18 on: December 22, 2010, 12:06:15 am »

Let's not get TOO nostalgic... they used strobe tuners, and click tracks and all kinds of technological assistance back then, too.

Takes were edited, etc.  Section leaders may have worn headphones...

Take a modern DAW and throw it into that time and those records would STILL sound amazing, because the METHOD made the takes sound good: great players playing a great arrangement in a great room.

When that stuff came out of an AM radio in mono it sounded GOOD.  But let's not pretend it wasn't compressed or limited both as it went to vinyl and over the air...

t

Fletcher

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Re: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« Reply #19 on: December 22, 2010, 10:32:40 am »

In addition to what Tom pointed out - the fact of the matter is that the process was far less "democratic".  

There were far fewer studios producing far less music so only the "creme de la creme" got inside one.  Songs were chosen on merit [though many still sucked, there was far less suck than there is today]... players "earned" their way in, engineers "earned" their way in, producers "earned" their way in... and for the most part, the "independent" studios were built by guys who built most of the gear that went into those studios -- they knew their shit rather than what started to occur in the 70's, 80's and beyond where the larger studios were built by "trustafarians" or drug dealers who needed to launder some money [and the occasional "rawk stah" who needed to have one.

The time didn't have schools that turned out a few hundred more kids who could hit Grandma up for $35k to build their Pro-Tools rigs [because they couldn't get a real gig but wanted to "live the dream"] -- the studios were either built by the companies that released professional recordings [or as previously mentioned, had built their own gear].  "Room treatment" didn't come out of a box UPS could deliver, it was designed and built into a proper room which had high ceilings and a good amount of space.  

The "track count" wasn't in the stratosphere [as previously mentioned - much was done "direct to mono disk"] - and NOTHING was "grid accurate" or "tuned" -- it was played with feel [for the most part] and sung by actual singers [Bob Dylan didn't happen until the 50's were well over].
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CN Fletcher

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jrmintz

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Re: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« Reply #20 on: December 22, 2010, 02:31:51 pm »

tom eaton wrote on Wed, 22 December 2010 00:06

 they used strobe tuners, and click tracks



I hated strobe tuners - it was much faster and easier to tune by ear. They were like tack pianos - every studio had one but I rarely saw any actually being used.

Click tracks, in NY at any rate, were used for what they were intended - to record music in sync to film. Every arranger had the big book that converted from frame rates to bpm. There were arrangers who made magic writing music that rescued pedestrian film. Click didn't really start getting used on records until the late seventies - early eighties, but it didn't much matter. The good musicians were (and still are) comfortable working with or without click.
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JDNelson

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Re: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« Reply #21 on: December 22, 2010, 02:50:02 pm »

I was spining the original vinyl release of the 'Muddy Waters Live at Newport' lp last night, on Chess Records.  IIRC it was recorded in 1960 or thereabouts, at the festival.  Good God the sound is unbelievably good, even by modern standards.  And it was a live recording.  Amazing.

Borough Cat

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Re: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« Reply #22 on: December 22, 2010, 03:03:33 pm »

Microphones employed at Newport (at least for jazz) were U47s and C12s as seen on the Jazz on a Summers Day film circa '59
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Mark Nelson

Dominick

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Re: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« Reply #23 on: December 22, 2010, 04:27:11 pm »

Fletcher wrote on Wed, 22 December 2010 10:32

....and sung by actual singers [Bob Dylan didn't happen until the 50's were well over].


A low blow. Props to my man Bobby. As fine a singer as they come. Tony Bennett could not have delivered those songs with that power. Tell 'em Muddy Waters sent you.
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Dominick Costanzo

Bubba#$%Kron

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Re: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« Reply #24 on: December 23, 2010, 01:51:26 am »

Yeah, but it was funny as hell!!!!!!


Dominick wrote on Wed, 22 December 2010 13:27

Fletcher wrote on Wed, 22 December 2010 10:32

....and sung by actual singers [Bob Dylan didn't happen until the 50's were well over].


A low blow. Props to my man Bobby. As fine a singer as they come. Tony Bennett could not have delivered those songs with that power. Tell 'em Muddy Waters sent you.

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"When we make music we don't do it in order to reach a certain point, such as the end of the composition. If that were the purpose of music then obviously the fastest players would be the best. Also, when we are dancing we are not aiming to arrive at a particular place on the floor as in a journey. When we dance, the journey itself is the point, as when we play music the playing itself is the point."  -Alan Watts

Nick Sevilla

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Re: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« Reply #25 on: December 23, 2010, 02:08:57 am »

jrmintz wrote on Tue, 21 December 2010 17:51

It's funny - they're so ubiquitous now it's hard to remember the time before guitar tuners. We used to have to tune to the piano. Which meant that you had to get the drummer not to play long enough so you could hear the piano. There were people who played great but never played completely in tune. Remarkably enough some of them worked all the time. The groove was just more important than perfect tuning.


On that tuning note...

I just heard a rough mix of an artist that is asking me to mix his record.

I asked the producer, to kindly send me an UNTUNED vocal version.

The untuned vocal sounded just great as is. Why they felt they had to tune it to heck and back, is another example of mediocrity, fear, and lack of talent of the "middlemen", who feel a need to perfect everything, while at the same time not listening to anything with any sort of common sense.

"Just because you can, does not mean you should"

Cheers, and Happy Holidays!
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mgod

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Re: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« Reply #26 on: December 23, 2010, 01:18:03 pm »

I'm a little puzzled by the tuner obsession. I thought the idea was always to be in tune with the piano, and the piano isn't tuned every hour to a guitar tuner.

I was doing a record last year and I asked the guitar player for a note. He said, "You don't use a tuner, do you? That's badass." Now this guy was a grown up and a genius actually, so I noted the moment, that somehow these little not-always reliable gizmos have really infested our musicality.

I mean, just gimme a note and I can tune my bass. Maybe not as well as Ali Akbar Khan could (did), but good enough for western equal-tempered music.
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tom eaton

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Re: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« Reply #27 on: December 23, 2010, 04:07:15 pm »

Well, you'll drive most string players NUTS if your track is one of those "tune to the guitar" tracks.  

Tuning to the acoustic piano is a wonderful concept when the piano is either the first thing to go down or is part of the original take.  

But in general I agree with the sentiment... a tuner is just another tool that can get in the way of listening.  Perhaps the very beginning of the "how does that note look" phenomenon?  

t

jrmintz

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Re: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« Reply #28 on: December 23, 2010, 05:04:48 pm »

tom eaton wrote on Thu, 23 December 2010 16:07

Well, you'll drive most string players NUTS...


It's a matter of driving them nuts before they drive you nuts...
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compasspnt

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Re: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« Reply #29 on: December 23, 2010, 05:12:31 pm »

Nothing like a room full of string players chattering away, right up to letter A.
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Jay Kadis

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Re: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« Reply #30 on: December 23, 2010, 05:33:55 pm »

My bet is that tuners have saved more tracks than they've ruined.  At least that's been my experience.  I still remember fighting with other band members about their inability to tune by ear - all that went away the day we got a tuner.  Then we could just fight about the music...

Bubba#$%Kron

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Re: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« Reply #31 on: December 24, 2010, 06:36:46 am »

String instruments are fret-less, so they play by ear and just need to be in the same ballpark.  Guitars and bass however have fixed fret points so they must be in tune and intonated correctly to get any emotion out of them.   Pianos usually hold tune for a while because they are only struck with soft hammers and the strings dont get squeezed and pulled like other instruments.   Perfect tuning is vital in todays environment, especially if you want to catch the ear of the ipod pogo punk generation thats coming up whose brains are conditioned to perfectly organized immediate gratification!!!!!!
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"When we make music we don't do it in order to reach a certain point, such as the end of the composition. If that were the purpose of music then obviously the fastest players would be the best. Also, when we are dancing we are not aiming to arrive at a particular place on the floor as in a journey. When we dance, the journey itself is the point, as when we play music the playing itself is the point."  -Alan Watts

Blackie Pawless

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Re: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« Reply #32 on: December 24, 2010, 08:17:35 am »

compasspnt wrote on Thu, 23 December 2010 16:12

Nothing like a room full of string players chattering away, right up to letter A.



+1. The most accurate observation/lament I've heard all year. Man, it is so aggravating.
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Dominick

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Re: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« Reply #33 on: December 24, 2010, 08:53:45 am »

Bubba Kron wrote on Fri, 24 December 2010 06:36

...Guitars and bass however have fixed fret points so they must be in tune and intonated correctly to get any emotion out of them...

Paging Chuck Berry
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Dominick Costanzo

Bubba#$%Kron

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Re: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« Reply #34 on: December 24, 2010, 09:08:15 am »

and Robert Johnson also!!

Dominick wrote on Fri, 24 December 2010 05:53

Bubba Kron wrote on Fri, 24 December 2010 06:36

...Guitars and bass however have fixed fret points so they must be in tune and intonated correctly to get any emotion out of them...

Paging Chuck Berry

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"When we make music we don't do it in order to reach a certain point, such as the end of the composition. If that were the purpose of music then obviously the fastest players would be the best. Also, when we are dancing we are not aiming to arrive at a particular place on the floor as in a journey. When we dance, the journey itself is the point, as when we play music the playing itself is the point."  -Alan Watts

jrmintz

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Re: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« Reply #35 on: December 24, 2010, 12:02:31 pm »

Some people tune their guitars/basses/horns to a tuner and never think about pitch again. There are all kinds of things that affect tuning of a track once the guitars are "in tune". The most obvious is setup and intonation. Others are the age of strings - there's this crazy idea that new strings don't stay in tune. They do after the first five minutes if you break them in correctly. Also the gauge of the strings is important - any guitar designed in the fifties was designed for much heavier strings than are generally used today. Heavier strings have much better intonation than skinny ones all up and down the neck. Even though the frets stop the strings hand technique has a huge impact on pitch. If you've never experienced that, hold a note down on a bass and then squeeze softer and harder with your left hand - you can hear the pitch change. Same with the right hand - fret a note and hit it harder and softer with your right hand - the volume is not the only thing that changes. A properly intonated and tuned instrument played by someone with inconsistent hand technique, bass in particular, can leave a track with an ambiguous and moving tonal center that nothing else can be in tune with including drums. My personal feeling is that very often trying to EQ or compress bass to make it defined is an attempt to make up for the weak pitch center left by an inconsistent player.
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Re: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« Reply #36 on: December 24, 2010, 12:14:55 pm »

Don't forget that wound G string vs today's solid G string on electric guitars...try it once, and you'll hear (hopefully) what all that hoopla is about.

Oh, yeah...play thru a Fender Champ - one knob (volume), 7 watts...or get real carried away and pluck thru a tweed Bassman (with caps and such at 10-15% variation from one to the next)

So many things - mostly the players, the arrangements, the professionalism, and the 'get it right, right now, or get gone' approach to the business...

Oh - yeah - one other thing...no internet to blur the lines between reality, fantasy, and utter bullshit
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Ken Morgan
Wireline Studio
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Dayo

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Re: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« Reply #37 on: January 17, 2011, 12:14:20 pm »

They were called records because they were just that; a record of a performance.  That's the where the magic lies.  A bunch of talented people all playing together in the same room at the same time with the same goal.
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CWHumphrey

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Re: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« Reply #38 on: January 20, 2011, 04:00:41 pm »

Wireline wrote on Fri, 24 December 2010 09:14


Oh - yeah - one other thing...no internet to blur the lines between reality, fantasy, and utter bullshit



I just had to quote that for as much emphasis as I can muster.

Cheers,
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Carter William Humphrey

"Indeed...oh three named one!" -Terry Manning
"Or you can just have Carter do the recording, because he's Humphrey."-J.J. Blair

Hank Alrich

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Re: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« Reply #39 on: January 21, 2011, 12:51:06 am »

PaulyD wrote on Mon, 20 December 2010 08:04

Imagine being a musician before there was tape.

No rewinding, no redoing your part, no punching in, no overdubbing and no editing. Forget about eq and compression, let alone beat correcting and pitch correcting. If you made a major mistake, the media was wasted. Imagine being in an orchestra with that pressure.

Imagine just being a person before there was TV, stereo, home video, and video games. There was a time when having musical and live entertaining ability was a highly valued social skill. It's why you used to see stores that did nothing but sell, transport and service pianos. Lots of homes had them. That was your entertainment center.

EDIT: Sorry, didn't mean to drift OT. But yeah, more people participating, fewer of them being chosen.

Paul


Around the turn of the previous century, there were an estimated 7000 shops in the US building pianos. I've often thought we could get this country back on track by going to every household, removing all but one television, and replacing those with a piano.

MagnetoSound

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Re: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« Reply #40 on: January 21, 2011, 03:06:57 am »

Hank Alrich wrote on Fri, 21 January 2011 05:51

I've often thought we could get this country back on track by going to every household, removing all but one television, and replacing those with a piano.




I don't understand. What do you need even one TV for?


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Music can make me get right up out of my chair and start dancing or it can get me so pumped up I have to walk around the block.
It can also knock me back and make me sit there and cry like a little baby. This shit is as powerful as any drug!!!
- Larry DeVivo

johnR

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Re: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« Reply #41 on: January 21, 2011, 06:45:54 am »

MagnetoSound wrote on Fri, 21 January 2011 08:06

Hank Alrich wrote on Fri, 21 January 2011 05:51

I've often thought we could get this country back on track by going to every household, removing all but one television, and replacing those with a piano.




I don't understand. What do you need even one TV for?




To keep the population under control with subliminal messages.

I haven't owned a TV for over 10 years, but judging by the harrassing letters I keep receiving from the TV licensing authorities, they consider me to be a dangerous subversive.
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gwailoh

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Re: What were they doing with 50's music in the US?
« Reply #42 on: February 14, 2011, 05:36:49 pm »

Dominick wrote on Fri, 24 December 2010 05:53

Bubba Kron wrote on Fri, 24 December 2010 06:36

...Guitars and bass however have fixed fret points so they must be in tune and intonated correctly to get any emotion out of them...

Paging Chuck Berry


Elmore James.
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